Those little boxes mounted to the rear fender with the wires coming out of them are circuit breakers. The bike uses them instead of fuses - they reset automatically (with a click, next time you turn on the key) when the problem that made them trip is corrected. If they're working, you should measure little to no resistance between the two wire poles.
The thing under the triangular cover on the side of the bike is the electronic ignition module. Make sure your kill switch on the handlebar isn't off or grounding out, and jiggle your ignition key to see if there's a short there - those are two easy things to check.
If it ain't broke, don't fix it.